Basra Iraq History
The new Basra Museum in southern Iraq will receive some 3,000 books donated by the British Institute for Iraq Studies to promote the country's history and heritage. The library was housed in a closed library in the city after the first Gulf War since the 1990s.
The Iraqi general and commander who died in the war was created by Saddam to portray Iran as the main threat to his regime. Shiite areas in the region, divided in two by the Baghdad border, and the city became one of Iraq's most important economic and political centers. Slemani is the author of several books on the history of Basra, such as his book "Basra: The Middle East, Iran, Iraq and Iran.
Basra is one of Iraq's provincial capitals and has traditionally been part of a rich history dating back to the seventh century. During the Ottoman period, Basra continued to be an important commercial center, and for about half a century, in other words, it served as a center for trade between Iraq, Syria, Iran, and the Persian Gulf region.
After World War I, when the Ottoman Empire collapsed, Britain included Kirkuk in the new British-created state of Iraq, where it fell to Britain. Under British military supervision, King Faisal's new Iraqi state ruled, but Kuwait refused to surrender the territory it had acquired to finance the Iran-Iraq war. Iraqi territory in exchange for its support for the war against Iran, an agreement that was never accepted.
In March of that year, Tehran launched Operation Undeniable Victory, which marked a major turning point as Iran invaded Iraq's impenetrable lines, split its troops, and forced Iraqis to withdraw. In the years to come, Iran launched a series of military operations to advance into Iraqi territory and capture the city of Karbala, then Iraq's largest city, as well as other cities and towns in the north and south. Iran also launched Operation Karbala 5, which briefly occupied parts of East Basra, but ended its support for Iraq and Kurdish guerrillas in October of that year after Iraq recognized Iran's control of the border waterways running along the entire Thal.
Kurdish pipeline that Baghdad needed to export Kirkuk oil to Turkey and to ensure the KDP a role in the talks between Baghdad and the provinces.
After the refinery in Basra was repaired, Iraq steadily increased the amount of oil illegally exported to the Persian Gulf. It was thought to have flooded the old Ottoman-Ottoman border between Basra and Baghdad, which surprisingly few contemporary Iraqi analysts know to be exactly where it once was. Perhaps this is because it is the only oil refinery in the region with a direct link to Baghdad.
It was the first battlefield in a war-controlled country and served as an operational base for both the British and the Ottoman Turks in their attempts to occupy the whole of Iraq. A good example is their conflicts in the Middle East, where rivers and deserts limited offensive flexibility and provided support channels. Today, Iraq borders Turkey, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia.
The Ottoman border line between Basra and Baghdad has done this by creating an internal schism among the region's Shiites. As a result, the majority Shiite region of today's Iraq, which includes the cities of Baghdad, Erbil, Mosul, Tikrit, Sulaymaniyah, and others, has historically been closely linked to Baghdad, as have its own borders with Turkey, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Turkey.
Some non-Iraqi historians, such as the late historian Dr John W. Hutton, have argued that Britain gave Iraq too little autonomy during its occupation of the region during World War II. This is seen as a major factor in the rise of Saddam Hussein and the subsequent invasion of Iraq by Iran in 2003.
The first chapter of the book assumes that Iraq's political, economic, social, and cultural life in the 1960s and 1970s was shaped by the interdependence between the border regions and the Persian Gulf region as a whole. In the 1960s, Iraq developed a complex stratigraphy by crossing and overlapping art, oil and history paths. It is briefly described as an investigation of the infrastructural, commercial, and political cycles that connected the border cities with the rest of the Persian Gulf world.
The Iraqi government initially seemed to welcome the Iranian revolution that toppled the Shah of Iran, whom it considered a common enemy, even after the Arabs regained control of the Gulf states themselves. The Iraqi government encouraged Iraq to attack in order to be hostile to Iraq and to fear an "Islamic revolution." While distracted by the Iraq war, Kuwait amassed more than 900 square kilometers of Iraqi territory, working its way north along its border with Iraq.
In July 1982, Iran invaded Iraq and, after Iraq was put on the defensive, launched countless offensives to seize territory. Iraq has accused the use of chemical weapons on a large scale in the recapture of the city of Tikrit, then Iraq's largest city, and other cities in the region.